Credit: Courtesy of whitehouse.gov
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President: Abraham Lincoln (16th president)
Famous for: Pushing through the 13th Amendment, which outlawed slavery in the U.S.
Age at inauguration: 52
Life expectancy: 40 (except for that living past 40 meant you had a good chance of surviving until 70)
Age at death: 56
Known illnesses: Malaria, smallpox, frostbite, perhaps syphilis, perhaps multiple endocrine neoplasia (which would have caused his death before he turned 60, most likely), perhaps clinical depression. Lincoln does not seem healthy enough to have lived a long life if John Wilkes Booth had not shot him.
Cause of death: Assassination